Abstract: Neobuxbaumia macrocephala is a rare and heavily endangered species inhabiting the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley and the Balsas Basin, on the border of Puebla and Oaxaca, Mexico. Specimens are long-living, slow-growing cereoid cacti, which can reach a height of 7–15 m, branches are columnar, few. Before flowering, the shoot tips develop pseudocephalia bearing longer, black spines. Researchers are working on the preservation in situ and ex situ as well. One of the most important habitats has an area of about 1.5 ha. No specimens smaller than 3–5 m can be found. Seeds germinating in a few percentages, growing up young plants are also hard under controlled conditions. Flowers open during the night, flowers are pollinated and seeds are dispersed the endangered bat species Leptonycteris nivalis (Phyllostomidae). In the preservation of the species and the protection of the population size, the preservation of the bats is a point of prime importance.